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Turtle in python is like a drawing board, which lets us draw on the drawing board with the help of the turtle. We can control the movement of the turtle with the help of certain functions.

It can be used to introduce programming for kids, and It was a part of the original Logo programming language.

Importing the package

To make use of the turtle methods and functionalities, we need to import turtle.” turtle” comes with the standard Python package and need not be installed externally.

from turtle import *


import turtle

Let’s look at some functions:



args: A color string(“red”…

Object-oriented programming is the method of bundling related properties into individual objects.

OOP is that in which we structure a program so that the properties and behaviors are bundled into individual objects. An object could represent a person with properties like name, age, height, and behaviors such as walking, talking, etc.

The key takeaway is that objects are at the center of object-oriented programming in Python, not only representing the data, as in procedural programming, but in the overall structure of the program as well.

We use classes in python so that we make the code more manageable and maintainable.

Classes and instances

The hyperlink is a reference to data that a user can follow by tapping on it. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Text with a hyperlink is hypertext.

There are links in the mobile app that will redirect the user to an external website.


“url_launcher “ is a flutter plugin that will launch a URL.

Add the plugin in pubspec.yaml.

url_launcher: ^6.0.2

Then run the command to activate the plugin

flutter pub get

We will be creating a simple text widget and wrap it with a GestureDetector()

body: Center(…


This function provides access to several approaches for visualizing the univariate or bivariate distribution of data, including subsets of data defined by semantic mapping and faceting across multiple subplots. The kind parameter selects the approach to use:

histplot() (with kind="hist"; the default)kdeplot() (with kind="kde")ecdfplot() (with kind="ecdf"; univariate-only)

Loading the dataset.

d = sns.load_dataset("tips")

The default plot is the histogram.

sns.displot(data=d, x = "total_bill")

A progress bar is a graphical control element used to show the progress of a task such as downloading, uploading, installation, file transfer, etc. In this section, we are going to understand how to show a progress bar in a flutter application.

There are two types of progress indicator in flutter.

  1. LinearProgressIndicator
  2. CircularProgressIndicator


The linear progress bar is used to show the progress of the task in a horizontal line.

Flutter provides mainly two types of linear progress indicators:


Determinate progress bar indicates the actual amount of progress at each point in making the task. Its value will increase…

Flutter works with custom fonts and it can applied across an entire app or to an individual widget.

importing the font files

In order to apply custom fonts into a project we need to import the font files into the project, to use a custom font we add the font file into a fonts folder at the root of the flutter project.

The folder structure might look like this:


In part one we used the “Tips” dataset now we will be using the “penguins” dataset.

Now let's load the dataset.

d = sns.load_dataset(“penguins”)
>> Index(['species', 'island', 'bill_length_mm', 'bill_depth_mm', 'flipper_length_mm', 'body_mass_g', 'sex'],dtype='object')


Draw a combination of boxplot and kernel density estimate.

A violin plot plays a similar role as a box and whisker plot. It shows the distribution of quantitative data across several levels of one (or more) categorical variables such that those distributions can be compared. …

Seaborn is a library for making statistical graphics in Python. It builds on top of matplotlib and integrates closely with pandas data structures.

Seaborn helps you explore and understand your data. Its plotting functions operate on dataframes and arrays containing whole datasets and internally perform the necessary semantic mapping and statistical aggregation to produce informative plots. Its dataset-oriented, declarative API lets you focus on what the different elements of your plots mean, rather than on the details of how to draw them.


Report available example datasets, useful for reporting issues.

seaborn.load_dataset(name, cache=True, data_home=None, **kws)

Load an example dataset from…


pandas is a Python package providing fast, flexible, and expressive data structures designed to make working with “relational” or “labeled” data both easy and intuitive. It aims to be the fundamental high-level building block for doing practical, real-world data analysis in Python. Additionally, it has the broader goal of becoming the most powerful and flexible open-source data analysis/manipulation tool available in any language. It is already well on its way toward this goal.


A DataFrame is a 2-dimensional data structure that can store data of different types (including characters, integers, floating-point values, categorical data, and more) in columns. It is…

CNN- Convolutional Neural Network

CNN is a Deep Learning algorithm that takes an image as an input and weights and bias are assigned to various aspects in the image and differentiation is done from others.

The architecture is as same as the connectivity pattern of the neurons in the Human Brain.


In a convolutional neural network, the kernel is nothing but a filter that is used to extract the features from the images. The kernel is a matrix that moves over the input data, performs the dot product with the sub-region of input data, and gets the output as the matrix of dot products…


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